| 
  • If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Stop wasting time looking for files and revisions. Connect your Gmail, DriveDropbox, and Slack accounts and in less than 2 minutes, Dokkio will automatically organize all your file attachments. Learn more and claim your free account.

View
 

Contemporary Moral Problems (1-12)

Page history last edited by Patrick 11 years, 6 months ago

 

plurk..Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                           BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 1

Egoism and Moral Skepticism

James Rachels

 

Learning Expectations:

·         I would like to learn more about James Rachels Egoism and Moral Skepticism

·         I would like understand how James Rachels ethical egoism

·         I would like understand how James Rachels psychological egoism

Quotes:

 

“All that can be said is that genuine egoists are rare, and that it is a

fundamental fact of human psychology that humans care about

others and not just about themselves..”

 

“One is the set of actions which we may not want to do

but which we do anyway as a means to an end which we want to achieve.”

 

“...unselfish actions always produce a sense of self-satisfaction in the agent,

and since this sense of satisfactions is a pleasant state of consciousness,

it follows that the point of the actions is really to achieve

a pleasant state of consciousness, rather than to bring about an good for others.”

 

Review:

 

            Glaucon recalls the legend of Gyges and it goes like this, a shepherd who was said to have found a magic ring in a fissure opened by an earthquake. The ring would make its wearer invisible and thus would enable him to go anywhere and do anything undetected. In short, Gyges has a choice on how he will use the ring. Now, Glaucon ask us to think about the rogue and the virtue given a ring that has this kind of power. For me, if people were given a chance to have this kind of capability they will take advantage of it, taking advantage base on what values that was taught to them since they were a child. I think that it has different factor in judging this particular kind of situation.

 

Psychological egoism is the view that all men are selfish in everything that they do, that is, that the only motive from which anyone ever acts is self-interest. The way I understand it, base on the example, is that people are selfish in a way that he or she does things because he or she has a goal in accomplishing it for their own benefits without affecting the others or benefiting others even a little. On the other hand, ethical egoist is a person who always justified in doing whatever is in his own interests, regardless of the effect on others. This one is more violent than the Psychological egoism. I said it that way because the idea of Ethical egoism has a little similarity with the philosopher named Niccolò Machiavelli. It is more like doing anything that you want by any means without considering the means in doing it.

 

 

Things Learned:

 

            I have learned so many things about psychological egoism that the mere fact that I am acting on my wants does not mean that i am acting selfishly; that depends on what it is that I want. If I want only my own good, and care nothing for others, then I am selfish; but if I want other people also to be happy then my actions is not selfish.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                        BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 2

Religion, Morality, and Conscience

John Arthur

 

Learning Expectations:

·         I would like to learn more about how John Arthurs discusses the 3 ways of morality.

·         I would like to understand that religions is necessary to provide guidance to people in their search for the correct course of action

·         I would like to understand that religion is essential for there even to be a right and wrong.  

Quotes:

 

“To have a moral code, then, is to tend to evaluate

(perhaps without even expressing it) the behaviour of others

and to feel guilt at creating actions when we perform them.

Religion, on the other hand, involves beliefs

in supernatural power(s) that created and perhaps

also control nature, the tendency to worship and pray

to those supernatural forces or beings, and the presence

of organizational structures and authoritative texts.”

 

 

Review:

 

            Religions is therefore said to be necessary in that it provides motivation to do the right thing. I think I do not agree on this one. For me, religion is not necessary to do right things. For example, if parents has a good disciplinary action to their child and teach them what is right and wrong, then there is no issue their about religion. The parents discipline their child base on what the grandfather had to their children. It was commonly called human good. Doing things because you know what is morally right and wrong. It is like you know what is right and wrong base on your conscience.

            Behaving fairly and treating others well is more important than whatever we might gain from stealing or cheating, let alone seriously harming another person.

 

A second argument that is available for those who think religion is necessary to morality, however, focuses on moral guidance and knowledge rather than on people’s motives. For me, I think that the person needs to have moral guidance and knowledge of what is happening on his life. It is like the principle of learning everything in school and practice what the person have learned from school into practical situation or for the situation that will occur. It does not have to be like when the person has a problem in his or her life then that is the only time the person will consult the spiritual authority. Like what I have said awhile ago that it is a continuous growth of each individual for them to live continuously for Him. The only argument that I do think more about is that not all Christian agree on which is the best way to understand revelation.

 

 

 

 

 

Things Learned:

 

            I have learned that many motives for doing the right thing have nothing whatsoever to do with religion. I also do understand that doing something right is not really prerequisite with religion because many people do not have religion and yet they still no how to do things which is right according to law.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                        BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 3

Master and Slave Morality

Friedrich Nietzsche

Learning Expectations:

·         I would like to learn more about how Friedrich Nietzshe perception about healthy society and superior individual.

·         I would like to understand about the exploitation of the inferior.

·         I would like to know about the “master morality” that emphasizes power, strength, egoism, and freedom.

·          I would like to know about the “slave morality” that calls for weakness, submission, sympathy, and love.

Quotes:

 

“Corruptions – as the indication that anarchy threatens

to break out among the instincts, and that the

foundation of the emotions, called “life,”

is convulsed-is something radically

different according to the

organisation in which it manifests itself.”

 

 

Review:

 

Mr. Friedirch Nietzsche is trying to say about corruption is that it is an indication that anarchy threatens to break out among the instincts, and that the foundation of the emotions, called ”life,” is convulsed – is something radically different according to the organisation in which it manifests itself. The way I understand this part of this paragraph is that corruption is like letting go all of the things that the person has like privileges and anything that represent all of the things about the person for being dominant and then the person who was offered with the position that is lower than the position that the person has. On the other hand, Mr. Friedirch Nietzsche also say that if that person has that power to eliminate the powerless and those people who is weak in many things, imperfect man, or slaves should be an instrument of some of the things that should be done.

 

 

Here one must think profoundly to the very basis and resist all sentimental weakness: life itself is essentially appropriation, injury, conquest of the strange and weak, suppression, severity, obtrusion of peculiar forms, incorporation, and at the least, putting it mildest, exploitation; - but why should one for ever use precisely these words on which for ages a disparaging purpose has been stamped? For me, the way I see it Friedirch Nietzsche is trying to point out that in this world there are a lot of hard feelings and trying to be the best. Friedirch Nietzsche is saying that everyone is trying to hurt each other to become the highness of the slave and the follower of the superior. 

 

 

Things Learned:

 

            I have learned that if you come from the higher position and were given a chance to go lower down from the position where you come from you should think of something how to be superior without using the power that was vested on you. The position that was given to a person should use it to expel the weak and imperfect person.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                        BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 4

Trying Out One’s New Sword

Mary Midgley

Learning Expectations:

·         I would like to know why Mary Midgley attacks moral isolationism.

·         I would like to understand more about moral judgement.

·         I would like to understand how to judge.

Quotes:

 

“To respect someone, we have to know enough about him to make a favourable judgement, however general and tentative. And we do understand people in other cultures

to this extent. Otherwise a great mass of our most valuable

thinking would be paralysed.”

 

“Our Praise would be worthless if it rested on no definite grounds,

if it did not flow from some understanding.”

 

The power of moral judgement is, in fact, not a luxury,

 not a perverse indulgence of the self-righteousness.”

 

 

Review:

           

            Ms. Mary Midgley wrote in one of the portion of her article and said about something about anthropologist. She attack the view of anthropologists and others that we cannot criticize cultures that we do not understand – for example, the older Japanese culture that had the practice of trying out a new samurai sword on a chance wayfarer. She argues that moral isolationism is essentially a doctrine of immoralism because it forbids any moral reasoning. Furthermore, it falsely assumes that cultures are separate and unmixed, whereas most cultures are in fact formed out of many influences. Ms. Mary Midgley thinks and believe  that the criticizer can, guided by principle, deliver perfectly good indictments – only, it usually takes more than two weeks to make them damning. She also added that our praise would be worthless if it did not flow from some understanding. I really believe about the things that she said because in order for particular matter to be judge you must have really understand everything base on a criteria that was considered and agreed by every criticizer for you to judge a particular matter.

Real moral scepticism, in fact, could lead only to inaction, to our losing all interest in moral questions, most of all in those which concern other societies. For me, when we make a judgement, particularly to other culture, we must not base our own experiences and own perception about the things that they do contrary to ours. Another thing is that when the person is judging something it should be back up by facts so it will not be an open ended answer.

 

 

Things Learned:

            I have learned that when composing judgement, it should be back up by facts so it will not sound like you just want to close the conversation but informing a person that the people they do is good to their culture. The power of judgment is not a luxury not perverse indulgence of the self righteous.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                        BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 5

Utilitarianism

John Stuart Mill

Learning Expectations:

·         I would like to understand what utilitarianism is.

·         I would like to understand what higher ground is.

Quotes:

 

“The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals

Utility of the Greatest Happiness Principle hold that actions are

right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness,

wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.”

 

“It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied;

better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied.”

 

 

Review:

           

            Utility is a principle that instrument about maximizing pleasure. It tends to increase or boost pleasures of happiness in other words it does prevent pain and happiness from overwhelming the pleasures.

            All of the point’s utilitarianism has fully proved their case; but they might have taken the other hand, as it may be called, higher ground with entire consistency.  John Stuart Mill said, “It is quite compatible with the principle of utility to recognize the fact, that some kinds of pleasure are more desirable and more valuable than others. It is quite compatible with the principle of utility to recognize the fact, that some kinds of pleasure are more desirable and more valuable than others. They said that when measuring the level of pleasures it should only depend by quantity and not by quality of pleasures. For me, I do agree that it is important for the person to measure the happiness by quality and because much happiness really is not that happiness that you want to really have. On the other hand, people want quantity because as what utility meaning is all about it main purpose is to overwhelm the pain with pleasures.

It is indisputable that the being whose capacities of enjoyment are low, has the greatest chance of having them fully satisfied; and a highly endowed being will always feel that any happiness which he can look for, as the world is constituted, is imperfect. The way I understand this is that people who has contentment in their life has a greater chance of experiencing great chance of happiness compare to those who has high standard or high “criterion” of happiness. They way the author wrote it, base on my understanding, is that people with low criterion of happiness have fully understood that the world they are living is imperfect and that there is no way to have a happiness that will endure for a very long time.

 

Things Learned:

            I have learned that utility is about boosting your happiness or preventing pain and happiness from overwhelming the pleasures. I also learned that there are also two perspective in looking into pleasures: one is more of quantity and the other is the quality.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                        BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 6

The Debate over Utilitarianism

James Rachels

Learning Expectations:

·         I would like to understand what Classical utilitarianism is.

·         I would like to understand the argument that illustrates the short coming of utilitarianism about justice.

·         I would like to know the Utilitarianism’s odds.

·         I would like to know about Backward looking reasons.

Quotes:

 

“The utilitarian doctrine is that happiness is desirable,

and the only thing desirable, as an end; all other things

being desirable as means to that end.”

 

“Man does not strive for happiness; only Englishman does that.”

 

 

Review:

           

            The classical utilitarianism has three propositions: one is that the actions are to be judged right or wrong base on their consequence/s. Nothing else matters. Right actions are, simply, those that have the best consequences. Second, the basis on the assessment from the first proposition is that gauging the cause of happiness and unhappiness. It is about you and your happiness. All that is not related to happiness should be disregarded or must be set aside. In other words, the only thing that matters is the amount of happiness or unhappiness hat is caused. Everything else is irrelevant. Thus right actions are those that produce the greatest balance of happiness over unhappiness.

             Justice requires that we treat people fairly, according to their individual needs and merits. The innocent man has done nothing wrong; he did not commit the rape and so he does not deserve to be punished for it. Therefore, punishing him would be unjust.  The example illustrates how the demands of justice and the demands of utility can come into conflict, and so a theory that says utility is the whole story cannot be right. I believe in this because when judging a person it is very important to have evidence. For me, theories must be disregarded when making judgement and also it must be fair according to what both parties which they are trying to defend.

            Backward looking reasons. There is an example that a person is stuck in a situation where a person gave a promise to his friend to meet him downtown. After that, the person who invited his friend to meet him downtown has changed his mind because of some work to do. This inconvenience cannot be an excuse because the person has promised and he has to do it because this situation cannot be escape easily. In the point of view of utility, it is good for the person who has work to do if it is more convenient for the person to stay at home and do his “work.”

 

Things Learned:

            I have learned that utility has flaws and things that need to be improve. I have also learned that there are 3 proposition of classical proposition. Those three are connected to each other in order to come up with right decisions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                        BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 7

Categorical Imperative

Immanuel Kant 

Learning Expectations:

·         I would like to understand the gifts of fortune.

·         I would like to understand the good will and its results.

·         I would like to learn more about categorical imperative

Quotes:

 

“The utilitarian doctrine is that happiness is desirable,

and the only thing desirable, as an end; all other things

being desirable as means to that end.”

 

“Man does not strive for happiness; only Englishman does that.”

 

 

Review:

           

Emmanuel Kant is a good philosopher that I describe. He formulated or let say introduced a good philosophical ideas.

Power, wealth, honour, even health and that complete well-being and contentment with one’s state which goes by the name of “happiness,” produce boldness, and as a consequence often over-boldness, as well, unless a good will is present by which their influence on the mind... These are some of the characteristics that Mr. Immanuel Kant is talking about in relation to gifts of fortune.

In this reading his accounts on good will says that it is impossible to imagine at all in the world or even out of it, which can be taken as good without qualification, except   good will. For me, good will simply means the intension of every action that takes place is the good will. For example, you are supposed to attend your class but there is an accident happened in the street near your school. You have to choose on what actions need to be done. It is wrong to cut class but he situation takes place. You have to help someone not for the sake that you are helping but it’s what you ought to do.

 

He also tells about the categorical imperative and hypothetical imperative. I can distinguish it by actions and the reasons. In categorical imperative, reasons came first and the actions will follow and in hypothetical imperative the actions are done first before the reasons. In categorical imperative you have the maxim that you follow before you do things. In hypothetical imperative, your actions are done because it is needed.

 

Act only according to that maxim whereby you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law." This is the categorical imperative. You act with the sayings and in order to become a universal law. You have the category or the list of actions that are needed to act upon and by this actions it may be a universal law if this actions are right and might influence good things to others.

 

“The end justifies the mean” it simply tells us that our actions that are done is not the reasons on how we consider it good. It’s the result of the actions whether it is good or bad is the issue.

This reading will help you make decisions that can be helpful or maybe harmful to others in the sense that not all our actions make a good result. We just have to balance things in order to have a good outcome.

 

Things Learned:

            I have learned that the categorical imperative is to act by the sayings and in order. I also learned how categorical imperative works, first things first is that the person must reason out before he do his or her reason into actions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                        BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 8

 

Happiness and Virtue

 

Aristotle

 

Learning Expectations:

·         I would like to know what is happiness for Aristotle

·         I would like to know the two kinds of virtue.

·         I expect to learn that Aristotle will solely define what Happiness and Virtue is for him. I also want to know if what he did is against someone’s belief.

Quotes:

 

If happiness is activity in accordance with virtue,

it is reasonable that it should be in accordance with the highest

virtue; and this will be that of the best thing in us.

 

“We must be content, then, in speaking of such subjects

And with such premises to indicate the truth roughly and in outline,

and in speaking about things which are only for the most part true

and with premises of the same kind to reach conclusions that are no better.

 

Review:

           

For Aristotle, happiness is about in accordance with virtue. Happiness is not about pleasures, honour, or wealth for Aristotle.          

Aristotle believes that true happiness is not accordance to pleasure but against it. He stated that not all pleasure is ideally good. Some pleasure may result to bad a thing; that is why it may not bind to being happy. Taking drugs may be pleasurable for others but as we all know, drugs are bad especially if you tend to abuse it. Aristotle clearly explains that Happiness should always come about with things that are good.

            Hedonists are people who are in love with pleasure. Aristotle states that he does not tolerate this kind of people because he believes that this is not true happiness. Aristotle believes that this is just a temporary happiness but it is not genuine. Aristotle said that it is temporary because things that makes a person pleasurable does not last that long. After that thing wears off, you are once again backing to being the way you were and still wanting to have more.

 

Things Learned:

                            I learned that true happiness for Aristotle is something that you did well and you feel happy about it. Happiness is not equivalent to pleasure because he believes that pleasure is just temporary.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                        BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 8

The Nature and Value of Rights

Joel Feinberg

Learning Expectations:

·         I want to know how Feinberg demonstrate that rights are morally important.

·         I also expect to learn that what the author meant about value of rights is the importance of it.

Quotes:

 

“When a person is said to deserve something good from

us what is meant in parts is that there would be a certain

propriety in our giving that a good thing to him in virtue of the

kind of person he is, perhaps, or more likely, in virtue  of some

specific  thing he has done.”

 

“A master or lord was under no obligations to reward his

servant for expecially goodservice; still a master might naturally

feel that there would be a special fittingness in giving a gratuitous

reward as a grateful response to the good service

(or conversely imposing a penalty for bad service).”

 

Review:

           

                Feinberg demonstrate that rights are morally important. He imagines a world like our own, except that people do not have rights. As a result people in this world cannot make moral claims when they are treated unjustly.  They cannot demand or claim just treatment, and so they are deprived of self-respect and human dignity. For me, I do agree with Feinberg that rights are morally important because rights are one of the things that keep the persons’ pride or ego about themselves. Having said that, people, even the poor people, has rights that keep them human. It is something that keep the human keep existing with the fellow human but some are taking it away. Now the problem is that most of the laws are not enough to protect the rights of human. The way Mr. Feinberg wrote about the if you are being maltreated by another person or organization, you cannot demand for just treatment because of the said treatment.

According to Joel Feinberg, rights are very important in one’s life. He created a world wherein people are not granted with rights. Not even the right to express one’s own opinion. This so-called world is Nowheresville. He first illustrated that that world has no rights. The readers got the chance to imagine and think what will happen if that world is similar to our world. By just thinking about it, it is very hard to live in that world. Joel Feinberg then placed rights but now took out duties. It is also hard for a world without duties because people do not care to anyone because it is not their duty to do it. It is a world wherein a man for himself. This is very hard for me, especially now, because I am still dependent to my parents. If we were to live in that world without duties, I may not last long.

Things Learned:

            I learned that people needs moral right to be able to participate to their society they are into. It is vital for the reason that the person will be able to proclaim that the person has a right. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                        BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 11

The Theory of Justice

John Rawls

Learning Expectations:

·         I would like to understand the two principle of justice.

·         I would like to understand the Rawl’s theory.

·         I would like to know what the principles of justice are.

·         I would like to know the basic structure of society.

Quotes:

 

“The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance.”

 

“IN working out the conception of justice as fairness one main task

clearly is to determine which principles of justice would be

chosen in the original position..”

 

 

Review:

           

            The two principles of justice from Rawls’s theory are the following: the first principle involves equal basic liberties, and the second principle concerns the arrangement of social and economic inequalities.

According to Rawls’s theory, these are the principles that free and rational person would accept in a hypothetical original position where there is a veil of ignorance hiding from the contractors all the particular facts about themselves. The way I see it, people who create laws are somewhat being biased. Why? Because most of the laws are being created are somewhat in favor to their side. Here in the Philippines, I somehow see it that way. Even though the constituent says that we create laws for the people but at the back of their head there are favors that on their side. Another thing that I think is that when constituents create laws, it is somehow inspired by the values that they have.

Rawls’s said that this guiding idea is the principles of justice for the basic structure of society are the original agreement. Also, they are the principles that free and rational persons concerned to further their own interests would accept in an initial positions of equality as defining the fundamental terms of their associations. I think that this is true. Justice and laws are the agreement of the structure of our society because this are the things where we can judge a person if the things that the person does is right or wrong. The only problem is that if the law that was created was created because of someone else’s values or because this was followed from the Bible? This are the dilemmas where we can have problems when it comes to standard in creating laws.

            The principles of justice are chosen behind a veil of ignorance. This ensures that no one is advantaged or disadvantaged in the choice of principles by the outcome of natural chance or the contingency of social circumstances.

Things Learned:

            I have learned that the veil of ignorance ensures that no one is advantage of disadvantage in the choice of principles by the outcome of natural chance or the contingency of social circumstances. I have also learned that veil of ignorance is hiding from the contractors all the particular facts about themselves.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick Ronald C. Arellano                                                                                        BOOK REVIEW

BS-IS                                                                                                                           Sir. Paul Pajo

                                           

Reflection

 

Chapter 12

The Need for More than Justice

Annette Baier   

Learning Expectations:

·         I would like to understand why Justice perspective by itself is inadequate as a moral theory.

·         I would like to understand why harmonizing justice and care is the best moral theory.

·         I would like to know the two dimensions of moral development.  

·         I would like to know the typical moral development theory of John Rawls’s theory.

·         I would like to know about moral traditions.

Quotes:

 

“Let me say quit clearly at this early point that there is little disagreement

that justice is a social value of very great importance, and injustice an evil.”

 

“The relative predominance of one over the other development

will depend both upon the relative salience of the two evils in

early childhood, and on early and later reinforcement or

discouragement in attempts made to guard against these two evils. ”

 

 

Review:

           

            She, Annette Baier, has since modified this claim, allowing that there are two perspectives on moral and social issues that we all tend to alternate between, and which are not always easy to combine, one of them what she called the justice perspective, the other the care perspective.

The two dimensions of moral development are thereby set – one aimed at achieving satisfying community with others, the other aiming at autonomy of equality of power.

John Rawls developed a theory about typical moral development which saw it to progress from a pre-conventional level. In this level, a child is pleasing or not offending parental authority-figures. The next level was the conventional in which a child is trying to comply with the rules of the school or / and to its community the child is into. The next level is the post-conventional is a part where in the conventional rules are subjected to test.

            For the moral tradition which developed the concept of rights, autonomy and justice is the same tradition that provides “justifications” of the oppression of those whom the primary right-holders depended on to do the sort of work they themselves preferred not to do.  

Things Learned:

            I have learned that the veil of ignorance ensures that no one is advantage of disadvantage in the choice of principles by the outcome of natural chance or the contingency of social circumstances. I have also learned that veil of ignorance is hiding from the contractors all the particular facts about themselves.

 

Comments (0)

You don't have permission to comment on this page.